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Palace of the Emir of Bukhara (Zheleznovodsk)

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The Emir’s Palace of Bukhara is one of the many attractions of the city of Zheleznovodsk, located at the foot of Zheleznaya Mountain along the main avenue of the Resort Park.

The palace was erected as the summer residence of the Emir of Bukhara, the ruler of the Bukhara emirate, who regularly came to the Caucasus to improve his health. That is why he decided to build his own summer residence here. Initially, the emir chose the city of Pyatigorsk to build the palace, in which he visited quite often. But after the emir visited Zheleznovodsk, he was so impressed by the beauty of the city and its environs that he decided to build a residence here.

The design of the palace was developed by the then architect V.N. Semenov. The architecture of the building uses motifs of Central Asian and Moorish architecture. The best masters, who were delivered by order of the emir from Old Bukhara and Khorezm, helped to give the palace a truly oriental look. The construction of the palace ended in the summer of 1912.

Inside the palace had a rather complicated layout - multiple passages, stairs, a huge number of corridors, the dome of the palace, a minaret with a spiral staircase and much, much more. Many rooms still have fireplaces and ceilings, but the main thing is a large fireplace in the living room, made in the "modern" style and decorated with tiles.

To connect the palace with the building where the emir’s harem was to be located, a special cross over wooden bridge was built. Emir, unfortunately, could not live in this beautiful palace, since he died before the completion of construction. The emir’s son decided to complete the palace, and afterwards presented it to the “Humanitarian Society of Empress Maria Fedorovna”, which was engaged in charity work.

During the civil war, the palace served as an infirmary. After he became one of the first sanatoriums of Zheleznovodsk. In the early 60s. 20 tbsp. the residence of the emir of Bukhara was renamed the sanatorium "Drummer". Today, this stunning eastern palace is one of the buildings of the Telman sanatorium.

Architecture

The Bukhara emir Seyid-Ahad-Bogodur-Khan often visited the Caucasian mineral waters and decided to acquire a summer residence. In 1905, at the highest command, a plot of land with an area of ​​1.7 square fathoms (0.77 ha) was allocated to his property. Designed by civil engineer Vladimir Nikolaevich Semenov, erected by the chief architect of the Caucasian Mineral Waters Ivan Ivanovich Baykov and civil architect V.F. Zimmerman. The palace was built over five years (1907-1912), becoming the summer residence of the Emir of Bukhara in the Caucasian Mineral Waters. On the occasion of the completion of construction, the Bikes and Zimmerman ordered a silver dish for 200 rubles to offer “bread and salt” to the new owner, the emir of Tura-Jan-Mirza-Alim-Khan. He became the new emir of Bukhara in 1910 after the death of his father. Busy with the unrest that began in his homeland and considering the death of a worker during the construction of the palace a bad omen, in 1913 he transferred the building to the “Humanitarian Society of Empress Maria Fedorovna” in memory of the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanovs. The emir’s cottage was given to a “charity sanatorium for women’s pedagogical staff”.

In 1912, the new Upper Mineral Baths for 30 cabins (60 baths) were commissioned by architect A. Kuznetsov. For his work, the architect was awarded a golden cigarette case with a diamond eagle. The sanatorium, which opened here in 1914, interrupted its work with the outbreak of the First World War, when it began to perform the functions of the infirmary.

After the 1917 revolution, the building was again used as a sanatorium. Since 1920, the Tsusstrakh health resort with 80 beds has been located in the palace building. In the 1930s and 1950s, sanatorium No. 41 of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions functioned here, and in the early 1960s the name was changed to “Drummer”. During the Second World War, the former emir’s summer cottage was damaged during the military operations in the North Caucasus in 1942-1943, and hospital No. 2164/5435 was located in the surviving building. The palace building in the 1970s became part of the sanatorium. E. Telman.

By the decision of the Executive Committee of the Stavropol Territory Council of People’s Deputies dated 10/01/1981 No. 702 “Northern building of the sanatorium named after E. Telman (the former dacha of the Emir of Bukhara), where K. Zetkin was resting in 1924, and M.I. Ulyanova and N.K. Krupskaya had a rest in 1929 ”was declared a historical monument of federal significance.

In 2017, the palace building was transferred to one of the companies operating in the territory of the Caucasian Mineral Waters for a 49-year lease for a hotel.

Architecture

The main building is a two-story brick building of a palace type, created in the "pseudo-Moorish style and has the basic features of a country Art Nouveau", being an eclectic mix. The main facade consists of a rectangular tower with a balcony (minaret), a peshtak and a corner square tower with a dome and a veranda. The masters of Bukhara and Khorezm performed intricate carvings in the form of national Uzbek ornaments, decorated the walls with ceramic plates with floral patterns (“arabesques”). The main entrance is designed in the form of a semicircular arcade on cast-iron columns with Moorish capitals and a stepped base. A stone staircase in several marches decorated with sculptures of lions leads to it.

The palace has a complex layout with many stairs, corridors and passages. In the front part there are rooms intended for audiences. They preserved the decoration of the ceilings, and a large fireplace with tiles has survived in the living room. The ensemble was rebuilt several times, due to which the openwork drawbridge leading to the office premises was replaced with a closed corridor, and a window with modern slots was built into the facade wall on the 1st floor. The courtyard is distorted by the rectangle of the sanatorium club room.

The harem building, as well as a number of outbuildings (stable, glaciers, rooms for servants, etc.) were located on the estate. Around the estate itself, a cast-iron fence was erected, in the southeastern part of which the builders built an entrance portal with a rectangular opening and wooden doors. Above the entrance, “an inscription befitting this place was made in Arabic script,” meaning “Welcome!”

Palace of the Emir of Bukhara

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Best place to spend summer

Photo: Natalia Mkhoyan

The ruler of the Bukhara emirate, Seyid Abdulakhad Khan, headed the state already at a time when it was under the protectorate of the Russian Empire. But the Central Asian ruler loved Russia. And he often traveled around the country in the warm season - he came to the Crimea and the Caucasus to rest and improve his health. For the first time he ended up at the Kavminvody and Yalta in 1894 - and since then he has not missed almost a single summer.

Illustration: Scout magazine, No. 226, 1895

They always met him royally. And the emir did not remain in debt - he generously paid for treatment, donated large sums to charity. As a result, Seyd got two summer cottages in Russia: in Yalta and in Zheleznovodsk.

“Nature, forest, air that is easy to breathe,” says Galina Bystritskaya, a junior researcher at the Zheleznovodsk Museum of Local Lore, about what attracted the Bukhara emir. - He loved Russia, was friends with Alexander III, and then with Nicholas II too. The emir had the rank of adjutant general and cavalry general. He was listed in the Terek Cossack army, where he was a punish chieftain.

Usually in the Caucasus Seyd stayed in Pyatigorsk at the Staro-Evropeysky Hotel, where he rented 30 rooms for servants. But once Seyid drove to Zheleznovodsk - together with his retinue and wife, whom he always took with him, despite the fact that officially there were twenty of them from Emir of Bukhara. In Zheleznovodsk, he stopped at the cottage of General von Klugenau near the City Treasury Park. Abdulahad Khan liked the place so much that in the same year he requested Nicholas II to allow him to buy a plot for the construction of a summer residence.

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